The original journal article (Sekar, 2016) the headline relates to proposed that ‘synaptic pruning’ occurs at pivotal points in development, however, excessive pruning during adolescence are matched to the symptoms experienced by Schizophrenics. The regulation of an individual’s synaptic pruning is specifically related to the gene ‘complement component 4‘ referred commonly to as ‘C4’.
It has long believed that Schizophrenia had an innate component, however, the difficulty in systematically testing the impact of the environment meant clear conclusions have always been difficult to draw. The Diathesis-Stress Theory suggest that Schizophrenia could be caused by a biological vulnerability (diathesis) triggered by environmental factors (stress).
The current Sekar 2016 research is an exciting development in answering the questions of the biological cause of schizophrenia as well as how an effective treatment may be developed. Watch this space….
For a short time Phineas may have been unconscious. His gang carried him to a nearby ox-cart where, sitting against its head board, he was driven to the Cavendish inn where he lived. He alighted unaided. Then from a chair on the ‘piazza’ he told his story to the bystanders. He greeted Edward Higginson Williams, the first medical practitioner to arrive, with ‘Doctor, here is business enough for you’.
Malcolm Macmillan – Phineas Gage; Unravelling the myth
A 25 year old Phineas Gage is a name synonymous with biological explanations to criminal behaviour. Reportedly a mild mannered individual who after having a significant brain injury from a tampering iron transformed him in terms of his behaviour and personality, giving rise to a new way of thinking regarding the relationship between brain and behaviour.
Pertinaciously obstinate, capricious, and vacillating’ about his plans for the future – ‘no sooner arranged than they are abandoned’
But how accurate are the stories of this seemingly Jekyll and Hyde case….? An article published be the British Psychological Society via Malcolm Macmillan is Professorial Fellow in the Department of Psychology at the University of Melbourne is attempting to put the record straight. Click on the picture to read about this fascinating case.
Edinburgh University are currently advertising some free online courses such as ‘The Clinical Psychology of Children and Young People‘. Even though it doesn’t contribute to a formal qualification they are providing a verified statement of accomplishment (for a fee of around £32), the course run over for 6 hours per week and take from 1-3 hours. Here are some of the outcomes they are offering;
Understand essential developmental processes and how they relate to child and adolescent mental health and well being
Understand key mental health difficulties that affect children and young people
Develop a critical reflection on the nature and perception of typical and atypical development and psychological difficulties
Understand and to critically examine the cultural and societal context for child and adolescent development and developmental psychopathology.
The Cognitive approach was initially contrasted with Behaviourism, especially in the US where the highly experimental, yet limited perspective was seemingly running out of steam, where Behaviourism was only interested in the external, observable and measurable phenomena Cognitive Psychology wanted the same experimental approach but took the view that the internal thought processes often compared with a ‘computer‘, was an area of study worth pursuing.
What are the processes within the mind shaping thought? What were their limitations and are they fixed? Were they applicable to all, was there a ‘human’ base model that all shared that culture and experience then could mould? One such example, many will be familiar with terminology like short-term and long-term memory as an example of our early Cognitive Psychology devised simplistic models to represent how complex processes of memory interact. George Miller’s 7(+-2) to represent the ‘capacity’ of Short Term Memory that then produced ‘chunking‘ to seemingly generate a hack to get around the limitations of our own systems.
For such hard wired or ‘hard-coded‘ (to maintain the often cited computer analogy), these ‘rules of thought’ were systematically studied to provide support for cognitive psychology which became the new face of experimental psychology generating memory tasks to provide evidence of our how these cognitive systems worked. However, many studies produced basic lists of words and objects to produce effects whilst interesting were deemed to have little ecological validity.
Ecological Validity of early Cognitive based tests
The classic 1935 Stroop Test illustrates both the seeming limitations of our cognitive processes through a task that has very little generalisability to real word tasks. Take an interactive test here.
However, no ‘process’ was left unturned perception, problem-solving, attention, language and memory historically the key areas of Cognitive Psychology. Whilst conducting highly controlled experimental work to build a body of evidence using a Nomothetic approach, some took an interest in the variations in people’s thinking whilst others took a more idiographic approach interested in the case studies of individuals whose thought processes were seemingly ‘faulty’ or ‘erroneous’. Consider how visual illusions work. They take advantage on how our perceptual sets are fixed which means anything we are presented with that sits outside of that our mind has to either attempt to adjust or it produces an image that we cannot understand.
The Case of HM
One such case was that of Henry Molaiso (referred to as HM). Aged 27 needing brain surgery HM had both parts to his ‘hippocampus‘ removed when receiving surgery to assist his epilepsy. What wasn’t known then is the Hippocampus structure is now thought to be crucial in the development of new memories.
However, for reasons still not completely understood (often thought to be the result of the heavy medication for the epilepsy) HM had no memory of events for the 11 years prior to the operation and unable to make new ones. This is referred to a global amnesia constituting a completed lack of memory both prior (retrograde amnesia) and after (anterograde amnesia). HM therefore, became a man whose memory finished when he was 16 years old without any way to process new memories. A similar case is that of Clive Wearing watch the video below for an insight into a life where memory doesn’t exist.
B.F. Skinner criticises the cognitive approach as he believes that only external stimulus – response behavior should be studied as this can be scientifically measured. Therefore, mediation processes (between stimulus and response) do not exist as they cannot be seen and measured. Skinner continues to find problems with cognitive research methods, namely introspection (as used by Wilhelm Wundt) due to its subjective and unscientific nature.
Humanistic psychologist Carl Rogers believes that the use of laboratory experiments by cognitive psychology have low ecological validity and create an artificial environment due to the control over variables. Rogers emphasises a more holistic approach to understanding behaviour.
The information processing paradigm of cognitive psychology views that minds in terms of a computer when processing information. However, there are important difference between humans and computers. The mind does not process information like a computer as computers don’t have emotions or get tired like humans.
Work by Elizabeth Loftus investigating how easily a ‘normal’ memory can be distorted by simple language is one of the most well-known works in Psychology. However, not exempt for ecological validity issues it is still one of the most stark examples of how memory is malleable and easily altered. Particularly useful in the realm of Forensic Psychology and the ease in which eye-witness testimony can be falsely relied upon. Test your knowledge of that research –here.
Below shows the progression from Cognition (thought) to the Behaviour (Actions) that have been reframed by using CBT, comparing the initial ‘faulty’ thinking. Mindfulness is fast approaching CBT as a preferred method of dealing with anxiety without drug therapy. And here is an article critiquing CBT as a useful therapy.
He/she ignored me – they don’t like me
He/she looks a bit wrapped up in themselves – I wonder if there’s something wrong?
THE DSM -5 and the ICD 10 are the most renowned classifications for mental illness used today. As time goes on there is a ‘convergence’ between the two classification systems, however, there are still some key differences. The Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders-3 is also becoming a significant force but like the earlier versions of the DSM tends to be used primarily in its country of origin. In the article cited below written by Professor Peter Tyrer the notion of a new American project for diagnosis based more on current genetic, neuroscience and behavioural science research called the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) is discussed.
Tyrer explains ‘The absence of a zone of rarity indicates that the threshold for psychiatric diagnosis is usually arbitrary. When psychiatrists make a decision about a clinical diagnosis they, therefore, have no guidance in deciding on the cut-off point between disease and wellness. Almost all psychiatrists create an artificial boundary between disorder and normality. Increasingly, it has been recognised that a dimensional system of diagnosis is, therefore, superior to a categorical one, but this is only beginning to penetrate into diagnostic systems.
Does the DSM suffer from ‘Over diagnosis‘ (validity) or does the increase in mental health issues relate to inconsistent diagnosing (reliability) or are people suffering more in a consistently more competitive and difficult world?
These are the subgroups of disorders where the two systems are similar in their main categorisation;
Here are the key differences between the two systems.
Demons, ghosts and aliens, in that order, have been reported over 100’s of years as visitors in the night scaring not only children but adults too….are we being visited by those from other worlds and dimensions…or….could there be a simpler explanation?
During sleep it is now well documented that the mind and body goes through a number of processes, the most well known is R.E.M (and some stages of NREM) where the brain becomes active and where reports of dreaming tends to have the greatest level of frequency. During this period the human body responds with its own sets of changes, one being the muscles become inactive and it is though that this is a mechanism to stop the dreamer acting out their dreams. This safety mechanism however can sometimes be out of synch hence phenomenon such as sleepwalking and even sleep-murder in rare cases. During a period of where the body still thinks it is asleep and therefore paralysed however the individual becomes conscious they can experience a dream like state whilst awake – an experience that is reportedly very frightening, especially as it is correlated with a crushing sensation on the chest from the inhibited muscle activity (back to the demon sat on the woman in Fuseli’s painting).
“It was like nothing I’d ever experienced before,” recalls Hannah Foster from Brighton. “After a normal day at work, I went to bed around 11pm, as always, and the next thing I remember is waking up, basically paralysed. It was terrifying. And the more I panicked, the more it felt like I couldn’t breathe properly. The second time, I knew what was happening – but as well as the paralysis, I also saw a terrifying black figure. It looked a bit like a demon – with a scrunched, ugly face, like a gargoyle. I tried to scream and move away from it.” Source; Mail online
These hypnopompic hallucinations have been correlated with a timeline, those reporting the phenomenon 200 years ago would report demons or ghosts, whilst these still occur attempted alien abduction reports are now more common and represents fears that are culturally time bound. In Canada the phenomenon is referred to as ‘The hag‘, in Mexico “Dead person on you” (Subirse el muerto) and in China “Ghost pressing down on you‘. Alien abduction attempts have also been explained as examples of traumatic sleep paralysis episodes. It is interesting to note that you can now get ‘alien abduction insurance‘ for peace of mind.
The future of sleep paralysis experiences
The Zombie apocalypse is a common theme in television, film and popular culture maybe we will see a rise in zombie related experiences in the dead of night where unsuspecting sleepers wake awkwardly with hypnopompic hallucinations to the face of an extra from ‘The walking dead’, a White Walker from Game of Thrones or the new revamp of the X-Files.
‘A Church of Our Lady that is named Bedlam. And in that place be found many men that be fallen out of their wit. And full honestly they be kept in that place; and some be restored onto their wit and health again. And some be abiding therein for ever, for they be fallen so much out of themselves that it is incurable unto man’
William Gregory, Lord Mayor of London, c. 1450
The year is 1247, not much is happening in Britain Henry III is on the throne, Romford becomes a market town, a new silver long cross coin is introduced into the currency and then on October 23rd the Priory of the New Order of St Mary of Bethlem opens. in 1377 the Priory becomes a hospital but it wasn’t until around 1403 that confirmation that it was being used as a place for the housing of ‘lunatics‘ after an investigation by the Royal Commission following a scandal including the Porter.
From this moment on the institutions role would be one inextricably linked with the asylum of those suffering with disorders. Far from a place of treatment ‘Bedlam‘. often was used as a place to visit, rather like a zoo. Treatment tended to be based upon blood letting and similar unpleasantness based upon the historic view of Galen’s’ humours’.
Here is a new museum has been set up to commemorate this historic institution. Including art created by some of the inhabited the place. ‘Work is on display by several renowned artists who spent years in Bethlem, including Richard Dadd – noted for his minutely detailed fairy paintings – who was locked up after he murdered his father. Jonathan Martin, brother of John Martin who was famous for his huge biblical scenes, only took up art when committed to Bethlem for his partly successful attempt to burn down York Minster and became a celebrity in the hospital, selling his work to visitors. His output is represented by a drawing of himself sitting in a wood full of lions, which according to his own inscription represents his dream “ of my foot cut off by the command of the princess and the king”. cited from the Guardian
Following is the time team special that focuses on ‘Bedlam’, and in particular the graveyard used by the institution.
Here is a list of reasons for entry into one of The U.S historically significant institutions Trans-Allegheny (it was closed in 1994) which should give you an idea of how far the treatment and perception of dysfunctional behaviour, thankfully has come.